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Tserenyuk Aleksandr, Doctor of Science, assistant professor
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4797-9685
Akimov Aleksandr, 
PhD, Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1938-0459
Shkavro Natalya, PhD, Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9768-1847
Chereuta Yury
Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2019-122-248-257

Keywords: constitution, sows, repair pigs, measurements, exterior profile, body indices.

Abstract

The article highlights the results of the constitutionindices assessment of two-breed repair pigs and sows of the main herd (from Welsh breed as the main maternal form). The development of pigs was determined by individually taking of basic measurements of the body. To linear growth of animals determine the following measurements were evaluated: height at the withers, body length, chest width behind the shoulder blades, chest depth behind the shoulder blades, chest girth behind the shoulder blades, metacarpus, pad length. According to the obtained absolute indices the main body indices were calculated. The research results were processed by traditional methods of variation statistics. The elongation index for both repair pigs and the main sows increased as live weight increased. In repair pigs, it ranged from 169.0 % to 186.3 %, of main sows – from 190.6 % to 216.2 %. On the compactness index, in most cases the opposite picture was observed. So, in repair pigs, the value of this index decreased from 101.3 % to 97.2 %, and for main sows - from 100.0 % to 85.9 %. For the rest of the estimated indices clear dependence was not indicated. Slightly larger values were noted on the index of elongation in the main sows, compared with repair pigs. The opposite picture is obtained by the compactness index. Meanwhile, according to other indices, there were no significant differences between the main sows and repair pigs. It was established that for both repair pigs and main sows, there was a gradual decrease in the values of the ILW index with an increase in live weight. At the same time, in the main sows with a live weight of 240-260 kg up to 260-280 kg, the ILW index has not changed. Between repair pigs and main sows for width, depth and coverage of the lower back measurements there is a highly reliable difference in favor of the main sows – 7.69 %, 16.38 % and 9.14 %, respectively (p≤0.001).

References

  1. Tsereniuk, O. M., Korkh, I. V., Akimov, O. V., Stryzhak, T. A., Shkavro, N. M., Khvatova, M. A., Martyniuk, I. M., Palahuta, A. V., Tronchuk, A. I., Chereuta, Yu. V., Tymofiienko, I. M., Romanova, V. O., Tsereniuk, M. V., & Maltsev O. M. (2015). Pidvyshchennia realizatsii henetychnoho potentsialu produktyvnosti svynei porid landras i uels za vidtvoriuvalnymy ta vidhodivelnymy yakostiamy [Improvement of realization of genetic potential of productivity of pigs of Landrace and Welsh breed for reproductive and fattening qualities]. Kharkiv : Instytut tvarynnytstva NAAN [in Ukrainian].
  2. Ahapova, Ye. M. & Susol, R. L. (2015). Uzahalnennia selektsiino-tekhnolohichnykh osnov stvorennia ta praktychnoho vykorystannia perspektyvnoho henotypu svynei odeskoho rehionu [Generalization of selection and technological bases of creation and practical use of the perspective genotype of pigs in the Odessa region]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky Prychornomor’ia Bulletin of Agrarian Science of the Black Sea Region. Mykolaiv, 2(2), 63-70 [in Ukrainian].
  3. Khalak, V. I. & Chehorka, P. T. (2015). Svynarstvo Naddniprianshchyny v kintsi ХІХ – na pochatku ХХ stolittia [Pig Production of the Dnieper in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries]. Byuleten Instytutu silskoho hospodarstva stepovoyi zony NAAN UkrainyBulletin of the Institute of Agriculture of the steppe zone of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Dnipropetrovsk, 9, 143-147 [in Ukrainian].
  4. Tsereniuk, O., Akimov, O., Chereuta, Y. & Kosov, M. (2019). Features of sperm injection into genital tracts of sows and gilts in artificial insemination. Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium Modern Trends in Livestock Production October 9-11, 2019. – Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade-Zemun, Serbia. – Р. 423-430.
  5. Stavetska, R. V. & Piotrovych, N. A. (2015). Vplyv henotypu knuriv na reproduktyvni yakosti svynomatok [Influence of genotype of buds on reproductive quality of sows]. Tehnologіja virobnictva і pererobki produkcіі tvarinnictva – Technology of production and processing of livestock products, 1, 65-70 [in Ukrainian].
  6. Tsereniuk, O., Susol, R., Bordun, O., Paliy, A., Shkromada, O., Akimov, O. & Tsereniuk, M. (2019). Dependence of sows` phenotypic consolidation of productivity on the reason of their culling due in index selection. Porc Res, 9(1), 15-20 [in Romania].
  7. Martyniuk, I. M., Tsereniuk, O. M. & Akimov, O. V. (2019). Zaplidnenist ta bahatoplidnist svynomatok zalezhno vid kratnosti osimeninnia u rizni pory roku [Fertility and breeding of sows depending on the multiplicity of insemination at different times of the year]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Instytutu tvarynnytstva NAAN– The Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science NAAS. Kyarkiv, 121, 152-162. DOI: 10.32900/2312-8402-2019-121-156-162 [in Ukrainian].
  8. Karunna, T. I. (2012). Indeksy tilobudovy remontnykh svynok riznykh henotypiv [Indices of body of gilts of different genotypes]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Vinnytskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu – Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University. Vinnytsia, 3(61), 104-106 [in Ukrainian].
  9. Leontiev, V. V. (2011). Dynamika rostu ta rozvytku molodniaku otrymanoho vid svynomatok ukrainskoi m’iasnoi porody za riznykh metodiv rozvedennia [Dynamics of growth and development of young animals obtained from sows of Ukrainian breed for different breeding methods]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Vinnytskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu – Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University. Vinnytsia, 11 (51), 41–46 [in Ukrainian].
  10. Aknievskyi, Yu. P. & Hryshyna, L. P. (2006). Zakonomirnosti rostu svynei riznykh henotypiv [Characteristics of growth of pigs of different genotypes]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky Prychornomor’ia – UkrainianBlack Sea region agrarian science. Mykolaiv, 3(35), 2, 166-170 [in Ukrainian].
  11. Khalak, V. I. & Kravchenko V. O. (2006). Zakonomirnosti rostu remontnykh svynok vnutrishnoporodnoho typu UVB-3 ta yikh produktyvnist [Regularities of Growth of Repair Wounds of Intravenous Type UVB-3 and Their Productivity]. Tavriiskyi naukovyi visnyk – Tavriysky Scientific Bulletin. Kherson, 43, 386 - 389 [in Ukrainian].
  12. Topchii, L. I. (2007). Indeksna otsinka rostu i rozvytku svynei askaniiskoho typu Ukrainskoi m’iasnoi porody [Index evaluation of growth and development of Ascanian pigs of Ukrainian breed]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky – Bulletin of Agrarian Science, 9, 75-76 [in Ukrainian].
  13. Topchii, L. I. (2009). Otsinka knuriv za rostom, rozvytkom ta budovoiu tila nashchadkiv [Estimation of buds by growth, development and structure of descendants]. Ptakhivnytstvo –Poultry Farming. Kharkiv, 63, 17-22 [in Ukrainian].
  14. Tsereniuk, O. M., Chereuta, Yu. V. & Tsereniuk, M. V. (2018). Fenotypova konsolidatsiia pokaznykiv budovy tila dvoporodnykh svynomatok [Phenotypic consolidation of indicators of body structure of two-breed sows]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Instytutu tvarynnytstva NAAN – The Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science NAAS. Kharkiv, 120, 168-176 [in Ukrainian].
  15. Birta, H. O. & Burhu, Yu. H. (2008). Zalezhnist vykhodu m’iaso-salnoi produktsii ta yakosti svynyny vid henotypu [Dependence of meat and seafood output and pork quality on genotype]. Visnyk Poltavskoi derzhavnoi ahrarnoi akademii – Bulletin of the Poltava State Agrarian Academy. Poltava, 1, 187-188 [in Ukrainian].
  16. Busenko, O. T., Stoliuk, V. D., Mohylnyi, O. Y. et al. (2005). Tekhnolohiia vyrobnytstva produktsii tvarynnytstva [Livestock production technology]. O. T. Busenka (Ed.). Kyiv : Vyshcha osvita [in Ukrainian].
  17. Shcherban, T. V. (2014). Osoblyvosti liniinoho rostu tovarnoho molodniaku svynei [Peculiarities of Linear Growth of Commodity Pigs]. Naukovyi visnyk Natsionalnoho universytetu bioresursiv i pryrodokorystuvannia Ukrainy. Seriia: Tekhnolohiia vyrobnytstva i pererobky produktsii tvarynnytstva Scientific Bulletin of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Series: Technology of production and processing of livestock products. Kyiv, 202, 95-100 [in Ukrainian].
  18. Hryshyna, L. P. (2012). Prohnozuvannia produktyvnosti svynei za indeksamy rostu v rannomu ontohenezi [Predicting the productivity of pigs by growth indices in early ontogeny]. Svynarstvo. Mizhvidomchyi tematychnyi naukovyi zbirnyk Instytutu svynarstva i ahropromyslovoho vyrobnytstva NAANPigbreeding. Interdepartmental thematic scientific collection of the Institute of Pig Breeding and Аgro-industrial production of the NAAS. Poltava, 60, 50-55 [in Ukrainian].
  19. Tsereniuk, O. M., Korkh, I. V., Akimov, O. V. & Butenko, V. O. (2013). Rozvytok svynei v zalezhnosti vid stresostiikosti [The development of pigs depending on stress resistance]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Instytutu tvarynnytstva NAAN – The Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science NAAS. Kharkiv,110, 196-201 [in Ukrainian].
  20. Tsereniuk, O. M. (2006). Uelska poroda svynei ukrainskoi selektsii [The Welsh breed of pigs of Ukrainian breeding]. Dnipropetrovs’k: DDAU [in Ukrainian].
  21. Plohinskij, N. A. (1969). Rukovodstvo po biometrii dlja zootehnikov [Guide to biometrics for livestock specialists]. Moskva : Kolos, [in Russian].
  22. Baranovskij, D. I., Hohlov, A. M. & Getmanec, O. M. (2017). Biometrija v MS Excel: uchebnoe posobie [Biometrics in MS Excel: tutorial]. Har'kov : FLP Brovin A. V. [in Russian].

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Filipenko Irina, graduate student,
Pomitun Ivan, Doctor of Agricultural Sci., Professor
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7743-3600
Admina Natalia, Ph.D.,
Zolotarev Angrey,
Institute of Animal Science of NAAS
Admin Alexandr, Ph.D., Senior Researcher,
LLC TD Ukrainian Veterinary Technologies.

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2019-122-237-248

Keywords: milk productivity, lactation, mastitis, somatic cell content, phenotypic factor.

Abstract

The results of the influence of phenotypic factors on the milk productivity of cows and milk quality indicators, in particular, the content of somatic cells, are presented. A reliable effect of the age of the animal, the stage of lactation, the season of the year and the machine milking operator on the physical-chemical parameters of milk and cow disease with mastitis was established.
More than 15,000 milk samples were analyzed and it was revealed that the average somatic cell content in milk was quite high 411 ± 7 thousand per cm3. According to the obtained data, about 20
% of the studied milk samples were obtained from cows with subclinical or clinical mastitis.
According to the results of the analysis of variance, the content of somatic cells for cows of 6 lactation and older (634 ± 53.1 thousand in cm3) was almost two times higher than in heifers (331 ± 9.2 thousand in cm3).
The seasonal changes in average milk yield, fat and protein content in cow's milk are analyzed. The average daily milk yield varied from 18.3 ± 0.19 kg in January to 21.7 ± 0.17 kg in July, the fat content ranged from 3.72 ± 0.012 % in July to 4.37 ± 0.024
% in December, the protein content from 3.07 ± 0.011 % in June to 3.35 ± 0.010% in November. The season’s influence was 4.6 %, 10.4 % and 5.8 %, respectively. The lowest average number of somatic cells (306 ± 18.1 thousand in cm3) was observed in milk samples obtained in May, and the highest 539 ± 33.8 thousand in cm3 in January (P<0.05).
The “machine milking operator” factor influence on the average daily milk yield was 4.1
%, on the fat content 5.8%, protein 1.2% and on the content of somatic cells in milk 1.8 %. At the same time, the difference between the maximum and minimum values was: for a daily milk yield of 5.4 kg, for a fat content of 0.53%, for a protein of 0.14%, and for a somatic cell content of 403 thousand in cm3.
The percentage of cows with mastitis also reliably depended on the machine milking operator. The greatest number of cases of cow diseases with mastitis was observed in the sixth group (29.3 ± 3.46
%), which was more than three times higher than in the eighth group (9.0 ± 2.65 %).

References

1. Petrov, P. Zhukova, Y., & Yuriy, D. (2016). The Effects of Dairy Management on Milk Quality Characteristics. Turkish Journal of Agriculture – Food Science and Technology. 4, 9, 782-786

2. Nyman, A. K., Persson, Waller, K., Bennedsgaard, T. W., Larsen, T., & Emanuelson, U. (2014). Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows. Dairy Sci., 97, 9, 5459-5473.

3. Dohmen, W., Neijenhuis, F., & Hogeveen, H. (2010). Relationship between udder health and hygiene on farms with an automatic milking system. J. Dairy Sci., 93, 9, 4019-4033.

4. Sheldrake, R. F., Hoare, R. J. T., & McGregor, G. D. (1983). Lactation Stage, Parity, and Infection Affecting Somatic Cells, Electrical Conductivity, and Serum Albumin in Milk J. Dairy Sci. ‑ 66, 3. ‑ 542-547.

5. Ericsson Unnerstad, H., Lindberg, A., Persson Waller, K., Ekman, T., Artursson, K., Nilsson-Ost, M., & Bengtsson, B. (2009). Microbial aetiology of acute clinical mastitis and agent-specific risk factors. Vet. Microbiol. 137(1-2), 90-97.

6. Zazharska, N. M., Kurban, D. A., & Holubieva, O. V (2017). Vmist zhyru, bilku, somatychnykh klityn u molotsi koriv i kiz v zalezhnosti vid kilkosti laktatsii [Content of fat, protein, somatic cells in milk of cows and goats depending on the number of lactations] Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Naukovo-doslidnoho tsentru biobezpeky ta ekolohichnoho kontroliu resursiv APK – Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Research Center for Biosafety and Environmental Control of Resources of the Agroindustrial Complex. Dnipro: DAEU, 5(4), 17-24 [in Ukrainian].

7. Sharma, N., Singh, N. K., & Bhadwal, M. S (2011).Relationship of Somatic Cell Count and Mastitis : An Overview. J. Anim. Sci., 24, 3, 429-438.

8. Koivula, M., Mäntysaari, E. A., Negussie, E., & Serenius, T. (2005). Genetic and Phenotypic Relationships Among Milk Yield and Somatic Cell Count Before and After Clinical Mastitis. J. Dairy Sci., 88, 2, 827-833

9. Zazharska, N. M., & Priadka, O. V., (2015). Vplyv periodu laktatsii, chasu nadoiu, sezonu na kilkist somatychnykh klityn moloka koriv [Influence of lactation period, milking time, season on the number of somatic cells of milk of cows] Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Naukovo-doslidnoho tsentru biobezpeky ta ekolohichnoho kontroliu resursiv APK –  Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Research Center for Biosafety and Environmental Control of Resources of the Agroindustrial Complex. Dnipro : DAEU, 3, 1, 107-114 [in Ukrainian].

10. Frössling, J., Ohlson, A., & Hallén-Sandgren, C., (2017). Incidence and duration of increased somatic cell count in Swedish dairy cows and associations with milking system type. J. Dairy Sci., 100, 9. 7368-7378

11. Olde Riekerink, R. G. M., Barkema, H. W., Stryhn, H. (2007). The Effect of Season on Somatic Cell Count and the Incidence of Clinical Mastitis, J. Dairy Sci., 90, 1704-1715.

 

 

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Tur Grigoriy, Ph.D.,
Rossokha Vladimir, Ph.D., Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8709-7535
Zaderikhina Elena,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8907-4908
Brovko Aleksey,
Aleshchenko Olga

Institute of Animal Science of the NAAS

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2019-122-229-236

Keywords: allele, genotype, blood grope, horses, stud farm, population, Orlov trotter breed, breeding.

Abstract

The article highlights the Ukrainian selections Orlov trotter horses breed gene pool specificity of leading breeding farms and the private sector (n = 2778).
 The Orlov trotter is a universal breed not only used on the racetrack, but also in classical equestrian sports, in theaters, circus, equestrian tourism, and also replenishes the hobby class horse market.
In Ukraine, the Orlov trotter horses breed is the third largest, and makes up 17.9
% of the total number of breeding horses.
One of the determining factors for the sustainable, progressive development of the domestic Orlov trotter population is the qualitative improvement of the breeding stock, taking into account the current conditions of their using and the prospects of progressive development, as well as their ability to respond to changing market requirements. This necessitates a comprehensive understanding about the genetic material, the essential element of which is genetic labeling using hereditary polymorphism.
Each of the studied Orlov trotter populations of the domestic breeding has a unique immunogenetic profile, which is related both to breed differences and properties, and to breeding methods.
Specificity and variability have been established for loci of blood group systems in Orlov trotters. A high frequency of blood group alleles is observed: Aad(0,8651 – 0,9711), Dbcm (0,1515 – 0,3059), Dcgm (0,0845 – 0,4047). Relatively rarely presented alleles: Ca (0
,1032 – 0,3020), Ka (0,1191 – 0,3090), Dad (0,083 – 0,2323), Ddg (0,0621 – 0,2738). Alleles Dd, Dde, Ddk and Dcegm in horses breed have the lowest frequency values, which range from 0 to 16 %.
The polymorphic A−system of blood groups in Orlov trotter horses is characterized by high saturation of the Aad allele. C and K genetic systems are characterized by a slightly lower frequency of Ca and Ka alleles.
Immunogenetic differences were determined and comparative characteristics of farm horses by blood groups alleles’ frequency and spectrum were performed.
The high genetic diversity in the breed was found, in general, which created the basis for breeding activities for Orlov trotter’s consolidation.

References

1. Mysin, M. A. (2010). Sravnitel'nyy analiz khozyaystvennykh priznakov matochnykh semeystv loshadey orlovskoy rysistoy porody [Comparative analysis of economic features of the uterine families of horses of the Orlov trotter breed]. Candidate’s thesis. Moskva. [in Russian].

2. Gromova, T. V., Asanov, S. S (2017). Otsenka vliyaniya proiskhozhdeniya na rabotosposobnost' loshadey orlovskoy rysistoy porody. Vestnik Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta. – Assessment of the influence of origin on the performance of horses of the Orlov trotter breed. Bulletin of Altai State Agrarian University, 10 (156), 121–125 [in Russian].

3. Hlushak, I. I., & Khomenko M. V. (2016). Kharakterystyka liniinoho rostu i zhvavosti kobyl orlovskoi rysystoi porody [Characteristics of linear growth and liveliness of mares of the Orlov trotter breed]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten'. Instytut tvarynnytstva NAAN – Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine. Kharkiv, 116. 29–33 [in Ukrainian].

4. Hlushak, I. I. (2015). Dynamika liniinoho rostu i zhvavosti u selektsiinomu protsesi kobyl orlovskoi rysystoi porody [Dynamics of linear growth and liveliness in the breeding process of mares of the Orlov trotter breed]. SWorld : Sbornik nauchn. trudov. –SWorld : Collection of scientific papers, 23, 1/38, 19–24 [in Ukrainian].

5. Instruktsiia z bonituvannia pleminnykh konei – Breeding Horse Boning Instruction (2007). Kyiv: Aristei [in Ukrainian].

6. Tkachova, I. V. (2009). Suchasna liniina struktura orlovskoi rysystoi porody v Ukraini. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten'. Instytut tvarynnytstva NAAN – Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine. Kharkiv, 101. 127–137  [in Ukrainian].

7. Tkachova, I. V. (2018). Selektsiino-henetychnyi monitorynh u koniarstviBreeding and genetic monitoring in horse breeding - Kyiv : Ahrarna nauka - Agrarian science[in Ukrainian].

8. Mel'nyk, Yu.F., Didyk, M. V., Podoba B. Ye., Dzitsiuk V. V., Rossokha V. I., Novikov O. O. (2002). Henetychnyi monitorynh u koniarstvi Ukrainy [Genetic monitoring in horse breeding in Ukraine]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten'. Instytut tvarynnytstva UAANScientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine. Kharkiv, 82, 60-63 [in Ukrainian].

9. Dubrovskaya, R. N., & Starodumov, I. M. (1996). Metodicheskiye rekomendatsii po ispol'zovaniyu polimorfnykh sistem belkov i grupp krovi pri kontrole dostovernosti proiskhozhdeniya loshadey [Methodical recommendations for the use of polymorphic systems of proteins and blood groups in the control of the reliability of the origin of horses] Vserossiyskiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut konevodstva; Divovo [in Russian].

10. Burkat, V. P., Husiev, I. V., Borodai I. S., Kopylov K. V., Bodriashova K. V., Kukhtina K. V., Podoba B. Ye., Biriukova O. D., Porkhun M. H., Kovtun S. I., Basovskyi D. M., Ziuziun A. B., Iovenko V. M., Nazarenko V. H., Herasymenko V. V., & Rossokha V. I.(2010). Rekomendatsii iz vykorystannia spadkovoho polimorfizmu v pleminnomu tvarynnytstvi Ukrainy [Recommendations on the use of hereditary polymorphism in breeding stock of Ukraine]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

 

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Tkachova Irina, Doctor of Science, Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4235-7257
Belikova Katerina, PhD student,
Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2019-122-219-229

Keywords: horses, Trakehnen breed, keuring, exterior, motor qualities, jumping qualities, sports performance.

Abstract

The aim of the research was to study the population of horses of traken breed of Ukraine and its assessment by breeding characteristics. The object of research was the population of Trakehner horses, a breed of subjects of breeding business and private owners of Ukraine.
By results of keuring horses of Trakenen breed of different age groups are estimated on a complex of selection traits: measurements of the body, type and an exterior, motor and jumping qualities, and sports performance (n=82).
Evaluation of the measurements of the body showed that horses two years of age exceeded the performance standard for all measurements, and three-year and older age – not reached their. Indices pelvic bodies increase on least formation organism horses and horse senior age, respectively, are characterized by superior performance of fairness index and index of bone.
Trakehner horses of Ukrainian selection enough highly rated on type and exterior (higher 7.0 key), motor qualities and the most highly-on jumping qualities (higher 8.0 key), that points to their ability to show jumping. The highest assessment for type and exterior received horse 4-year-old age and older, which already virtually fully physically developed, this same group highly evaluated on motor qualities, that also explains physical development and establishing the right gaits. On jumping qualities more highly rated horse 2-year-old age.
It is established that the exterior assessment is connected with sports qualities of Trakehner horses and is a necessary selection indicator at an assessment of quality of young growth of horses.
Analysis of the database of horses that competed in dressage competitions (n=188) showed that 11.1 % of them belong to the Trakehnen breed. Horses of the Trakehner breed was made 257 appearances and received an average score of 60,84 %, which is 1.68 % higher than in horses of other breeds and crossbred horses. The activity coefficient of performances at Trakehner horses smaller the index, the average efficiency is also lower than in other breeds.
The results of the assessment of athletic performance, the rating of the best Trakehner horses, a breed competing in dressage during the period studied, with the highest index of health.

References

1. Der Trakehner. – Retrived from : https://dertrakehner.de

2. Kamzolov, B. V. (2009). Nasledie Trakenena – Trakenen Legacy. S.-Peterburg, 4–9 [in Russian].

3. Teegen, R. (2008). Analysis of a breeding program using the example of the Trakehner Breeding Association : Doctoral thesis. University Kiel,12.

4. Chashkin, I. N., Dorofeeva, N. V., Shahova, I. S. (1971). Trakenenskaya poroda loshadej i metody ee sovershenstvovaniya [Trakenen breed of horses and methods for its improvement]. Gosudarstvennaya plemennaya kniga loshadej trakenenskoj porody – The state pedigree book of horses of the Trakenens breed. Moscow : Kolos, 1, 3–14.

5. Zuchtprogramm für die Population des Ostpreußischen Warmblutpferdes Trakehner Abstammung (Stand September 2018). – Retrived from : http:// www.trakehner-verband.de

6. Horse Breeds of Germany – The Trakehner – Retrived from : http://www.infobarrel.com/Horse_Breeds_of_Germany_-_The_Trakehner

7. Vakulova, L. L., Guseva, G. N., Dorofeeva, A. V., & Shahova, I. S. (2009). Gosudarstvennaya plemennaya kniga loshadej trakenenskoj porody – State Stud Book of Trakenen Horses. Divovo : VNIIK, 7. 4–15 [in Russian].

8. Volkov, D. A., Tkachova, I. V. Latka O. M., Kunets V. V., Peresada V. O., Korniyenko O. O., Lyuty`x S. V., Gdans`ka K. V., Rossoxa V. I., Koval`ova T. M., & Tur G. M. (2015). Ukrainska verkhova poroda – Ukrainian horse breed. Kharkiv [in Ukraine].

9. Derzhavnij arhіv Harkіvs'koї oblastі (DAHO). F. R. 6184. Op. 1. Spr. 44. Ukrainskij voennyj konnyj zavod № 173. Zavodskaya kniga zherebcov-proizvoditelej za 1943–1959 gg. – Ukrainian military stud farm No. 173. Factory book of stallions-producers for 1943-1959. Kharkiv, 1 [in Ukrainian].

10. Dorofeev, V. N. (1995). Tekhnologiya treninga i ispytanij molodnyaka verhovyh porod loshadej sportivnogo napravleniya – Technology of training and testing of young horseback breeds of sports direction. Candidate’s thesis. Moskva [in Russian].

11. Mel'nik YU.F., Goroshko І.P., Bezugla L.YU., Volkov D.A., Novіkov O.O., Tkachova І.V., Gopka B.M., Pavlenko P.M., Marushchak V.D. Іnstrukcіya z bonіtuvannya plemіnnih konej. Іnstrukcіya z vedennya plemіnnogo oblіku v konyarstvі. Polozhennya pro centralіzovanij plemіnnij oblіk u konyarstvі: normativno-praktichne vidannya. Kiїv: Mіn APU, «Konyarstvo Ukraїni», 2007. 108 s

 

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Stryzhak Tetiana, Ph.D., Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1966-3165
Luhansk National Agrarian University
Aksenov Yevhen,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6292-7819
Lisin V.,
Belykov Anatolii, Ph.D.,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4880-9567
Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine
Stryzhak Anastasia, student
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1315-8088
V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2019-122-208-218

Keywords: sex, productivity, low-intensive laser, rabbits, pigs, sperm.

Abstract

In the article highlights the results of physics-technological method implementation for animal productivity improvement by low of intensive laser radiation (LILR) using, as a factor of electromagnetic influence on the gametes of male. 24 rabbits were artificially inseminated with sperm of rabbits-producers irradiated by LILR (with an experimental obtained exposure, power and optical wavelength). From 16 fertilized female the 117 rabbits were born, with the following sex ratio: females (♀) 41.9 %, males (♀) 58.1 %, or on 19 male more, which is an advantage in the number of offspring males by 16.2 %. In experiments on pigs the biological criteria of quality and quantitative characteristics of LILR irradiated sperm of breeding boars before artificial insemination of 58 sows were analyzed. After farrowing, 603 piglets were obtained, including 39.6 % of pigs and 60.36% of the boar, respectively. The advantage in number of boars was 125 goals, or 20.72%., Studied LILR as a physical and technological factor was affected to sperm and offspring distribution by gender towards an increase of males. The obtained data allow us to calculate the predicted majority or minority of individuals of a certain gender - males or females, for further breeding and technological work with animals.
The obtained data were the basis for hypothesizing that LILR probably activates a Y-chromosome (with fewer chromatin), therefore, such sperm are more active and the first to fertilize mature eggs at the time of multiple ovulation of rabbits and sows.

References

1. BelIkov, A. A., Grabina, V. A., Lisichenko, N. L., Storyarov A. V., & Luneva V. A. (2009). Pervye itogi otsenki effektivnosti tsirkulyarno-polyarizovannogo lazernogo izucheniya v tekhnologii iskusstvennogo osemeneniya svinomatok [The first results of evaluating the effectiveness of circularly polarized laser studies in the technology of artificial insemination of sows]. Proceedsngs from ХХIV Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-praktichnaya konferentsiya «Primenenie lazerov v meditsine i biologii» – The XХХII International Scientific and Practical Conference «Application of lasers in medicine and biology» (рр.170–173). Gurzuv [in Russian].

2. Stryzhak, T. A., BelIkov, A. A., Stryzhak, A. V., & Korobov, A. M. (2018). Vplyv nyzkointensyvnoho lazernoho vyprominiuvannia na reproduktyvnu yakist svynomatok [Influence of low-intensity laser radiation on the reproductive quality of sows]. Proceedings from XLVIII Mezhdunarodnoyi naukovo-praktichnoyi konferentsiyi «Zastosuvannya lazeriv u meditsini ta bIologiyi» – The XLVIII International Scientific and Practical Conference "Application of lasers in medicine and biology" (рр. 152–154). Kharkіv [in Urainian].

3. Belikov A. A. Metod vybora luchshego varianta stimulyatsii spermiev vrashchayushchimsya magnitnym polem [Method for choosing the best variant of sperm stimulation with a rotating magnetic field]. (2008) XXIX Mezhdunarodnoyi naukovo-praktichnoyi konferentsiyi «Zastosuvannya lazeriv u meditsini ta biologiyi» – The XXIXI International Scientific and Practical Conference "Application of lasers in medicine and biology" (рр. 182–183). Kharkіv [in Russian].

4. Grabina, V. A. (2008). Vliyanie nizkointensivnogo lazernogo izlucheniya s tsirkulyarnoy polyarizatsiey na eyakulyat khryakov [Influence of low-intensity laser radiation with circular polarization on the ejaculate of boars]. XXIX Mezhdunarodnoyi naukovo-praktichnoyi konferentsiyi «Zastosuvannya lazeriv u meditsini ta biologiyi» – The XXIXI International Scientific and Practical Conference "Application of lasers in medicine and biology" (рр. 183–185). Kharkіv [in Russian].

5.  Sheyko, I. P., & Linkevich, E. I. (2010) Primenenie lazera v svinovodstve [Laser application in pig farming]. VesnikNatsionalnoy Akademii Nauk Belarusi. Seriya Agrarnyie naukiBulletin of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Series Agricultural Sciences, 3, 61-64. [in Russian].

6. Vyayzenen, G. N., Tokar' A. I., & Ural'skiy V. N. (2009). Ispol'zovanie lazernykh tekhnologiy v zhivotnovodstve [The use of laser technology in livestock]. Velikiy Novgorod : Pechatnyy dvor [in Russian].

7. Gordienko, M. F. (1995). O myasnykh kachestvakh i srokakh zaboev krolikov (1995). Krolikovodstvo i zverovodstvo – Rabbit and fur farming, 10, 23-28 [in Ukrainian].

8. Kotsyubenko, G. A. (2013). Naukovo-praktychni metody pidvyshchennia produktyvnosti kroliv [Scientific and practical methods of improving the productivity of rabbits]. Mikolaiiv : MNAU [in Urainian].

9. Pogorelova, A. O. (2017). Vpliv statі ta porodnoyi nalezhnosti na rist ta rozvitok kroliv spetsializovanih m’yasnih porid [Influence of sex and breed on the growth and development of rabbits of specialized meat breeds]. Visnik agrarnoi nauki Prichornomor’ya – Bulletin of Agrarian Science of the Black Sea, 4, 158–167 [in Urainian].

10. Ibatullin, I. I., & Zhukors`kiy, O. M. (eds) (2017) Metodolohiya ta orhanizatsiya naukovykh doslidzhen` u tvarynnytstvi: posibnyk [Methodology and organization of scientific research in animal husbandry]. Kyiv : Ahrarna nauka [in Ukrainian].

11. Klinc, P., & Rath D. (2006). Application of flowcytometrically sexed spermatozoa in different farm animal spicies: a review. Arch. Tierz., 49. 41–54.

12. Turchanov, S. (2007). Biologicheskaya tsennost' ottayannoy spermy [The biological value of thawed semen]. Zhivotnovodstvo Rossii – Livestock of Russia, 8, 20 [in Russian].

13. De Jarnette, J. M., Nebel, R. L., & Marshall, C. E. (2009). Evaluation the successe of sex-sorted semen in US dairy herds from on farm records. Theriogenology, 71, 49–58.

14. Dmitruk, B. P., & Klimenko, L. V. (2006). Vyrobnychyi tsykl u haluzi svynarstva: natsionalnyi ta svitovyi dosvid [Pig production cycle: national and world experience]. Kyiv : ZAT «Nichlava» [in Urainian].

15. Instruktsiia zi shtuchnoho osimeninnia svynei Instruktsiia zi shtuchnoho osimeninnia svynei [Instruction for artificial insemination of pigs] (2003). Kyiv : Ahrarna nauka [in Ukrainian].

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Sobol Olga, Ph.D., Associate Professor
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7607-7758
Kherson State Agrarian University

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2019-122-198-208

Keywords: horses, working-use horse breeding, measurements, body indices, intensity of use, horse-days, correlation

Abstract

The article presents the results of a study of the condition and ways of enhancement the horse breeding system in the working -use direction of the Kherson region. For evaluation the number of horses’ dynamics in the region, changes in the number of animals of other branches were studied. The onlybranch that showed a positive trend is poultry the livestock increased by 63.9%. The horse breeding branch suffered the greatest losses (94.0%). In addition to horse breeding, adverse conditions were noted for the development of sheep husbandryand goat husbandry, where the livestock reduction was 92.9%. Slightly smaller losses, 84.4 and 78.0%, respectively, were noted for the cattle breeding and pig breeding branches.
As of 1.01. 2018, the number of horses in the region was 0.8 thousand heads or 6.03
% of the required. The problem of horse breeding in the region is the lack of pedigree resources: only 4.38% of the available stock had documented data on the origin, the most represented breeds were Shetland pony (34.3%), horses of Western European sport breeds (25.7) and Ukrainian ride horse (20.0%), stallions of trotter and heavy breed breeds for improving horses of local breeding were not identified.
In the absence of use of sires of breeds - improvers, the studied population was small, the average measurements of mares were 149.3 - 150.8 - 170.2 - 18.1 cm, geldings 150.8 - 151.0 - 171.3 - 18, 3 cm. The horses had an underdeveloped skeleton (metacarpal index 12.1 ... 12.2), an almost square format (index 99.2 ... 100.5) and a relatively small chest circumference (chest index 113.7 ... .114.0), a small live weight of 402.4 and 409.8 kg. The use of horses was not effective enough, the working time fund was underutilized by 10.62 ... 27.84
%. Reliable indicators of the relationship with the intensity of use for all measurements, especially for height at the withers (0.641 ... .0.683), chest girth (0.314 ... 0.697), were revealed. The highest coefficients were obtained for the indicator of live weight (0.212 ... 0.755).
Based on the foregoing, the main way to
enhancement working - user horse breeding in the region is to improve horses in the direction of increasing their height at the withers and live weight through the use of stallions - producers of improving breeds.

References

  1. Ispol'zovaniye rabochikh loshadey [Using work horses]. Retrieved from cjzone.ru/ loshad/ ispolzovanie-rabochix-loshadej [in Russian].
  2. Koveshnikov, V.S. (1991). Puti razvitiya massovogo konevodstva [Ways of development of mass horse breeding]. Konevodstvo i konnyy sportHorse breeding and equestrian sport, 4,2–3 [in Russian].
  3. Timchenko, A. M. (2004). Rol' konevodstva v ekonomicheskom polozhenii sel'skogo naseleniya [The role of horse breeding in the economic situation of the rural population] Konevodstvo i konnyy sportHorse breeding and equestrian sport, 6, 2–6 [in Russian].
  4. Svechin, K. B., Bobylev, I. F., & Gopka, B. M. (1992). Konevodstvo Horse breeding. Moskva : Kolos [in Russian].
  5. Tkachova, I. V. (2018). Chystoporodne rozvedennya koney v umovakh obmezhenoho henofondu [Purebred breeding of horses in a restricted gene pool]. Scientific and Information Bulletin of the Faculty of Biology and Technology DVNZ «Xersons`ky`j derzhavny`j agrarny`j universy`tet – Scientific-informative bulletin of the Faculty of Biology and Technology of the Kherson State Agrarian University. Kherson : Kolos, 11, 66–73 [in Ukrainian].
  6. Hopka, B. M., Kalantar, O. A., & Pavlenko, P. M. (1989) Koni v sil's'komu hospodarstvi [Horses in agriculture]. Kyiv: Urozhay, 152 р. [in Ukrainian].
  7. Sobol', O. M. (2014). Rabochiye kachestva loshadey raznogo proiskhozhdeniya v usloviyakh fermerskikh i krest'yanskikh khozyaystv Bliznetsovskogo rayona Khar'kovskoy oblasti [The working qualities of horses of different origin in the conditions of farm and peasant farms of the Bliznetsovsky district of Kharkov region]. Naukovo-texnichny`j byuleten` Insty`tutu tvary`nny`cztva NAAN– Scientific – technical Bulletin’ – Kharkіv: Institute of Animal Science NAAS, 111, 201–207 [in Russian]
  8. Posternak, L. I. (2017). Perspektyvy ta kryteriyi rozvytku haluzi konyarstva v Ukrayini [Prospects and criteria for the development of the equestrian industry in Ukraine]. Ahrarna nauka ta kharchovi tekhnolohiyi Agrarian science and food technology, 2,230–236 [in Ukrainian].
  9. Klimenko, L. (1993). Ispol'zovanie rysakov kak rabochikh loshadey [The use of trotters as working horses ]. Konevodstvo i konnyy sportHorse breeding and equestrian sport, 4, 2 [in Russian].
  10. Novikov, A. A. (2005). Konevodstvo Ukrainy [Horse breeding of Ukraine] Materialy II naukovo-praktychnoyi konferentsiyi «Hodivlya koney. Suchasnyy stan haluzi. Problemy ta perspektyvy» Proceedings of the Second Scientific and Practical Conference «Feeding horses. The current state of the industry. Problems and Prospects» Dnipropetrovsk : Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian University (рр. 4 – 9) [in Russian].
  11. Starcheus, A. P., Onenko, V. I. (2001). Kin' u prysadybnomu i fermers'komu hospodarstvi [Horse in the peasant and farm]. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  12. Tvarynnytstvo Ukrayiny – Livestock of Ukraine: Statystychnyy zbirnyk (2018). Retrieved from www.ukrstat.gov.ua/druk/publicat/kat _u/2018/zb /05/zb_tu2017pdf.pdf [in Ukrainian].
  13. Bukusheva, A. V. (2015). Statisticheskaya obrabotka dannykh v Gnumeric – Correlation table – Statistical data processing in Gnumeric. Saratov? Retrieved from: https://docplayer.ru/30392009-Statisticheskaya-obrabotka-dannyh-v-gnumeric.html [in Russian].

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Sedyuk Igor, Ph.D.,
Zolotarev Angrey,
Institute of Animal Science of NAAS
Dubinsky Aleksandr,
Askanian State Agricultural Experimental Station of the Institute of Irrigated Agriculture of NAAS
Kravchenko Yuriy, PhD, Senior Researcher
Eleckaja Larisa,
Prusova Galina, 
PhD,
Rudenko Yevhen, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. Sci., Professor, Corresponding Member of NAAS,
Rusko Natalia
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2739-994Х
Chushak Yevgeniya
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2311-3011
Institute of Animal Science of NAAS

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2019-122-190-197

Key words: dairy cows, essential amino acids, methionine, lysine, milk production, nutrient conversion.

Abstract

The article presents the results of a study of the effect of proteins protected from digestion in the rumen and essential amino acids (methionine and lysine) on milk production and milk quality of milk production direction cows and nutrient conversion.
In a study of two groups per12 heads of lactating first-calf cows the actual feed intake, milk productivity, and milk quality indicators — fat and protein — were studied using diets with protected from digestion in the cows rumen proteins and essential amino acids.
The positive impact on productivity and milk quality of high-energy protein supplement TEP-mix, which contains protected from digestion in the rumen protein and essential amino acids (lysine and methionine)in cows feeding was proven. It was found that the use of a high-energy protein supplement TEP-mix with a protein protected from digestion in the rumen contributed to an increase of methionine amount in the diet of highly productive cows in the first half of lactation by 24.3 % compared with the existing norms for cattle feeding and lysine by 14.2 %, which in turn has a positive effect on milk productivity and quality. So, for 126 days of high-energy protein supplement TEP-mix using in the diets of cows a 735.5 kg or 11.1 % more milk were obtained from cows from the experimental group than from analogs from the control group. In this case, the average daily milk yield of the cows from the control group during the experiment was 28.3 kg of natural milk, and from the experimental group 31.4 kg of milk, or 3.1 kg more than in the control. The use of proteins protected from digestion in the rumen and the essential amino acids contained in it contributed to an increase of the fat content in milk by 10.8 % compared with the control, and protein by 3.5%, biological conversion of protein into milk by 14.5 % and energy conversions 17.0 %.

References

1. Podobed, L. I. (2017). Aminokisloty v pitanii sel'skokhozyajstvenny'kh zhivotny'kh i pticzy [Aminoacids inthefeed of farm animals and poultry]. Odessa : Akvatoriya [in Russian].

2. Podobed, L. I. (2012). Korma i kormlenie vy'sokoproduktivnogo molochnogo skota [Feed and feeding of high-performance dairy cattle]. Dnepropetrovsk : Art – Press [in Russian].

3.Vattio, M. A., & Hovard, V. T. (1996). Osnovny'e aspekty' proizvodstva moloka [Basic aspects of milkproduction]. Mezhdunarodnyj Institut po issledovaniyu i razvitiyu molochnogo zhivotnovodstva im. Babkoka. – International Institute for Research and Development of Dairy Livestock namedafter. Babcock, Madison.[in Russian].

4 Bach, A., Calsamiglia, S., & Stern, M. D. (2005). Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. J. DairySci., 88, 9-21

5. Durst, L. (2003). Kormlenie sel'skokhozyajstvenny'kh zhivotny'kh [Feeding farm animals].Vinnicza : Novaya kniga. [in Russian].

6. Trinacty, J., Krizova, L., Richter, M., Cerny, V., & Riha. J. (2006). Effect of rumen-protected methionine, lysine or both on milk production and plasma aminoacids of high-yielding dairy cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 54 (6), 239–248.

7. Robinson, P. H., Chalupa, W., Sniffen, C. J., Julien, W. E., Sato, H., Fujieda, T., Watanabe K., & Suzuki H. (1999). Influence of postruminal supplementation of methionine and lysine, isoleucine, orallthree aminoacids on intake and chewing behavior, ruminal fermentation, and milk and milkcomponent production. J. of Anim. Sci.. 77, 2781–2792.

8. Xu, S., Harrison, J. H., Chalupa, W., Sniffen, C., Julien, W., Sato‚ H., Fujieda, T., Watanabe, K., Ueda‚ T., & Suzuki, H. (1998).The Effect of Ruminal Bypass Lysine and Methionine on Milk Yield and Composition of Lactating Cows .J. Dairy Sci. 81, 1062–1077.

9. Ratika, Kh., James Singh, R. K., & Dahiya, S. S. (2018). Methionine, Lysine and Choline in Dairy Cows: a Review Article. International J. of Current Microbiology and Applied Sci. 7, 3921–3934.

10. Bogdanov, G. O. (2013). Normy, oriientovni ratsiony ta praktychni porady z hodivli velykoi rohatoi khudoby [Standards, indicative diets and practical tips for feeding cattle]. Zhitomir : PP «Ruta» [in Ukrainian].

11. Lepajy'e, L. K. (1981). Konversiya kormovogo proteina v pishchevoj belok [Feedprotein conversion to foodprotein]. Vestnik sel'skorhozyajstvennoy naukiJ. of Agricultural Sci. 5, 85-90 [in Russian].

 

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Saranchuk Ivan, Ph.D., Senior Researcher,
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4695-7804
Bukovyna State Agricultural Experimental Station of NAAS

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2019-122-180-189

Key words: honey bees, feed supplement, fatty acids, queen bees reproductive ability, bees (workers) honey productivity.

Abstract

In the article, the results of experimental trials are presented on connection investigation between fatty acid composition and sorption capacity of honey bees thorax tissues and productive traits at different amount of sunflower oil in feed additive. It is established, that as a result of adding 10 and 20 g of sunflower oil to a feed consisting of defatted natural soy beans flour and sugar syrup, the content of saturated, monounsaturated, and particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids in the feed additive increases dose-dependently – in fatty acid composition of total lipids, as well as in composition of unesterified fatty acids. Feeding on the additive enriched with sunflower oil causes dose-dependent concentration increase of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids of total lipids in honey bees thorax tissues in І- and particularly ІІ experimental group. Herewith, in thorax tissue of the above-mentioned bees, the correlation of family ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to family ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases. Concentration increase of family ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and particularly of ω-6 ones causes the dose-dependent increase of sorption capacity of honey bee thorax tissues in І and especially ІІ experimental groups. Due to this, in honey bees thorax tissues in the experimental group ІІ, there is an increase of ferum, zinc, cuprum, chromium, plumbum, and cadmium concentration. Changes in fatty acids composition and sorption capacity of honey bee thorax tissues in І and especially ІІ experimental groups are accompanied by changes in queen bees reproductive capacity and working bees honey productivity. Particularly, the queen bees oviposition in І and especially ІІ experimental groups increases by 11,9 and 26,4 %, respectively; and the working bees honey productivity increases by 16,9 and 26,6 %, respectively.

References

1. Arien, Y., Dag, A., Zarchin, S., Masci, T., & Shafir, S. (2015). Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112(51), 15761–15766.

2. Couture, P., & Hulbert, A. J. (1995). Membrane fatty acid composition is related to body mass in mammals. The Journal of Membrane Biology, 148(1), 27–39.

3. Ma, L., Wang, Y., Hang, X., Wang, H., Yang, W., & Xu, B. (2015). Nutritional effect of alpha-linolenic acid on honey bee colony development (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Apicultural Science, 59(2), 63–72.

4. Arien, Y., Dag, A., & Shafir, S. (2018). Omega-6:3 Ratio More Than Absolute Lipid Level in Diet Affects Associative Learning in Honey Bees. Front. Psychol., 9, 1–8. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01001.

5. Gätschenberger, H., Azzami, K., Tautz, J., & Beier, H. (2013). Antibacterial Immune Competence of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Is Adapted to Different Life Stages and Environmental Risks. PLoS ONE, 8(6). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066415.

6. Wu, Y., Zheng, H., Corona, M., Pirk, C., Meng, F., Zheng, Y., & Hu, F. (2017). Comparative transcriptome analysis on the synthesis pathway of honey bee (Apis mellifera) mandibular gland secretions. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 4530. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-04879-z.

7. Rabiee, F., Modaresi, M., & Gheisari, A. (2015). The effect to various oleic acid levels on reproductive parameters in queen bee. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 7(12), 326–331.

8. Hulbert, A. J., Kelly, M. A., & Abbott, S. K. (2014). Polyunsaturated fats, membrane lipids and animal longevity. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology, 184(2), 149–166.

9. Hulbert, A. J., & Abbott, S. K. (2011). Nutritional ecology of essential fatty acids: an evolutionary perspective. Australian Journal of Zoology, 59(6), 369–379.

10. Hulbert, A. J. (2010). Metabolism and longevity: Is there a role for membrane fatty acids? Integrative and Comparative Biology, 50(5), 808–817.

11. AL-Kahtani, S. N. (2017). Fatty Acids and B Vitamins Contents in Honey Bee Collected Pollen in Relation to Botanical Origin. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences), 18(2), 41–48.

12. Lavrekhin, F. A., & Pankova, S. V. (1983). Biologiya medonosnoy pchely. 3-ye izd., pererab. i dop. [Biology of the honeybee. 3rd edition, revised and enlarged]. Moscow : Kolos [in Russian].

13. Rivis, J. F., Shelevach, A. V., Fedak, V. V., Gopanenko, O. О., & Saranchuk, I. I. (2017). Kilkisni khromatohrafichni metody vyznachennya okremykh lipidiv i zhyrnykh kyslot u biolohichnomu materiali: metod. posibnyk [Quantitative chromatographic methods for determination of individual lipids and fatty acids in biological material: method. manual]. Lviv : Spolom [in Ukrainian].

14. Khavezov, I., & Tsalev, D. (1983). Atomno-absorbtsionnyy analiz [Atomic absorption analysis]. Leningrad : Khimiya [in Russian].

15. Yakovlev, M. V. (1958). Izucheniye sorbtsionnykh svoystv nekotorykh organov pri eksperimental'nom tuberkuleze metodom okrashivaniya. Issledovaniye svoystv selezenki i legkikh. Soobshcheniye III [The study of the sorption properties of certain organs in experimental tuberculosis by staining. The study of the properties of the spleen and lungs. Message ІІІ]. Byulleten' eksperimental'noy biologii i meditsiny. – Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. Moscow : Medgiz, ХІV, 45–54 [in Russian].

 

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