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Khalak V.I., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-6394
 State Institution "Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine"
Guty B.V., Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. Sci., Professor,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5971-8776
Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and of Biotechnology named after S.Z. Gzhytsky, Lviv, Ukraine
Bordun O.M., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher,
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6144-771X
Institute of Agriculture of the North-East of NAAS of Ukraine

 

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2021-126-153-162

Keywords: young pigs, breed, fattening and meat qualities, index, economic efficiency, variability, correlation

Abstract

The results of research of fattening and meat qualities of young pigs of Large White breed of different interbreeding differentiation on some integrated indicators are presented, the level of correlations between traits and economic efficiency of research results is calculated.
The experimental part of the work was performed in the agricultural formations of the Dnipropetrovsk region and the laboratory of animal husbandry of the State Institution "Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine. Evaluation of young pigs for fattening and meat qualities was carried out taking into account the following indicators: average daily gain of live weight during control fattening, kg, age of live weight 100 kg, days, fat thickness at 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, mm, length of chilled carcasses, sm (Berezovsky, Khatko, 2005).
Complex evaluation of young pigs for fattening and meat qualities was performed according to the SI4 selection index (Bazhov, Komlatsky, 1989) and the Sazer-Fredin index (quoted in Kozlovsky, 1982). Economic efficiency of research results (Method of determining economic efficiency…, 1983) and biometric processing of the obtained data (Lakin, 1990) were carried out according to generally accepted methods.
It was found that young pigs of Large White breed of the controlled population at the age of 100 kg exceed the minimum requirements of the elite class by 6.31%, the thickness of the fat at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae - 32.25% and the length of the chilled carcass - 3.92 %. A significant difference between animals of different interbreed differentiation according to the selection index SI4 (groups I and III) was established by the average daily gain of live weight during the control fattening period (91.7 g; td = 9.28; P <0.001), age of 100 kg live weight (7.3 days; td = 4.42; P <0.001), fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae (3.4 mm; td = 6.07; P <0.001), the length of the cooled carcass (1.7 cm; td = 3.54; P <0.01), the length of the bacon half of the cooled carcass (2.7 cm; td = 3.64; P <0.01). Taking into account the interbreed differentiation according to the Sazer-Fredin index, it was found that young pigs of group II outperformed peers of I on average daily live weight gain for the period of control fattening by 4.03%, age of 100 kg - 3.67% and length of the chilled carcass - 0.2%.
The pairwise correlation coefficient between fattening and meat qualities of young pigs and evaluation indices ranges from -0.760 (tr = 12.86) to +0.748 (tr = 12.14). The maximum increase in additional products was obtained from young pigs of the I experimental group according to the selection index SI4 (+4.88%) and the second experimental group according to the Sazer-Fredin index (+1.12%), and its value is +240.54 and +55.42 UAN/head respectively.

References

1. Strel'cov, V. A., Rjabicheva, A. E., & Lavrov, V. V. (2018). Otkormochnye i mjaso- sal'nye kachestva molodnjaka svinej v zavisimosti ot genotipa hrjakov [Fattening and meat-and-fat qualities of young pigs depending on the genotype of boars]. Zootekhniya, 9, 23−26 [in Russian].

2. Khalak, V. I., Cherniavskyi, S. Ye., Voloshchuk, V. M., Pocherniaiev, K. F., & Ilchenko, M. O. (2019). Vidhodivelni ta miasni yakosti molodniaku svynei riznykh henotypiv za SNP c.1426 G>A hena retseptoru melanokortynu 4 (MC4R) ta za umov yikh rozpodilu za deiakymy oznakamy [Fattening and meat qualities of young pigs of different genotypes according to SNP c.1426 G> A gene melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and under conditions of their distribution on some grounds]. Svynarstvo [Swine breeding]. Poltava, 73, 157−165 [in Ukrainian].

3. Khalak, V., Gutyj, B., Bordun, O., Ilchenko, M., & Horchanok, A. (2020). Effect of blood serum enzymes on meat qualities of piglet productivity. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(1), 158−161.

4. Loban, N. A. (2014). Sistema selektsionno-geneticheskikh metodov otsenki otkormochnykh i myasnykh kachestv sviney [System of selection and genetic methods for assessing fattening and meat qualities of pigs]. Svynarstvo [Swine breeding]. Poltava, 65, 69−75 [in Russian].

5. Tserenyuk, O. M. (2018). Henetychnyy potentsial produktyvnosti svyney porid uelʹs ta landras za vidhodivelʹnymy yakostyamy [Genetic potential of productivity of pigs of Welsh and Landrace breeds by fattening qualities]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Instytutu tvarynnytstva NAAN [The Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine]. Kharkiv, 120, 160−167 [in Ukrainian].

6. Khramkova, O. M. (2021). Hospodarsko-biolohichni osoblyvosti, adaptatsiyni vlastyvosti svyney irlandskoho pokhodzhennya ta yikh vykorystannya za riznykh metodiv rozvedennya [Economic and biological features, adaptive properties of pigs of Irish origin and their use in different breeding methods]. (Candidate’s thesis). Mykolayiv: Mykolayiv National Agricultural University [in Ukrainian].

7. Luhovyi, S. I. (2018). Metodolohiia analizu henofondu chystoporodnykh i pomisnykh svynei ta formuvannia yikh produktyvnosti na osnovi DNK-markeriv [Methodology of gene pool analysis of purebred and local pigs and the formation of their productivity on the basis of DNA markers]. Mykolayiv: Mykolayiv National Agricultural University [in Ukrainian].

8. Khvatova, M. A. (2012). Prohnozuvannia efektu heterozysu za kombinatsiinoiu zdatnistiu porodno-liniinykh poiednan svynei [Prediction of the effect of heterosis on the combinatorial ability of breed-linear combinations of pigs]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Instytutu tvarynnytstva NAAN [The Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine]. Kharkiv, 107, 148−153 [in Ukrainian].

9. Sheiko, I., Khochenkov, A., Khodosovskyi, D., & Sheiko, R. (2004). Uluchsheniye otkormochnykh i myasnykh kachestv sviney v usloviyakh promyshlennoy tekhnologii [Improvement of fattening and meat qualities of pigs in terms of industrial technology]. Svinovodstvo [Pig breeding]. Poltava, 6, 12−14 [in Russian].

10. Susol, R. L. (2013). Produktyvnist svynei velykoi biloi porody z pokrashchenymy miasnymy yakostiamy z urakhuvanniam DNK-markeriv. [Productivity of large white pigs with improved meat qualities, taking into account DNA markers]. Naukovyy visnyk «Askaniya-Nova» [Scientific Bulletin «Askania-Nova»], 6, 229−235 [in Ukrainian].

11. Hryshyna, L. P., & Fesenko, O. H. (2015). Efektyvnist vykorystannya spetsializovanoho typu svyney za skhreshchuvannya ta hibrydyzatsiyi [The effectiveness of the specialized type of pigs for crossbreeding and hybridization]. Visnyk ahrarnoyi nauky Prychornomorya [Ukrainian Black Sea region agrarian Science]. Mykolayiv, 2(84), 2, 40−47 [in Ukrainian].

12. Vashchenko, P. A. (2019). Prohnozuvannya pleminnoyi tsinnosti svyney na osnovi liniynykh modeley selektsiynykh indeksiv ta DNK-markeriv [Prediction of breeding value of pigs on the basis of linear models of selection indices and DNA markers]. (Candidate’s thesis). Mykolaiv [in Ukrainian].

13. Speed, D., & Balding, D. J. (2014). MultiBLUP: improved SNP-based prediction for complex traits. Genome research, 24(9), 1550−1557.

14. Berezovskyi, M. D., & Khatko, I. V. (2005). Metodyky otsinky knuriv i svynomatok za yakistiu potomstva v umovakh pleminnykh zavodiv i pleminnykh reproduktoriv [Methods of assessment of boars and sows by the quality of offspring in the conditions of breeding plants and breeding breeders]. In Suchasni metodyky doslidzhen’ u svynarstvi [Modern research methods in pig breeding]. Poltava, 32–37 [in Ukrainian].

15. Bazhov, G. M., & Komlackij, V. I. (1989). Biotehnologija intensivnogo svinovodstva [Intensive pig farming biotechnology]. Moscow: Rosagropromizdat [in Russian].

16. Kozlovskyi V. H., Lebedev Yu. V., Medvedev V. A., & Huch F. A. (1982). Plemennoye delo v svinovodstve [Breeding in pig breeding] Moscow: Kolos [in Russian].

17. Metodika opredelenija jekonomicheskoj jeffektivnosti ispolzovanija v selskom hozjajstve rezultatov nauchno-issledovatelskih rabot, novoj tehnologii, izobretenij i racionalizatorskih predlozhenij [Methodology for determining the economic efficiency of the use in agriculture of the results of scientific research, new technology, inventions and rationalization proposals] (1983). Moscow: VAIIPI [in Russian].

18. Lakin, G. F. (1990). Biometrija [Biometrics]. Moscow: Vysshaja shkola [in Russian].

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article

 

Frolova G.O.,
 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9994-4903
State Enterprise "Agency for identification and registration of animals"
Tkachova I. V.,  doctor agricultural science, Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4235-7257
Platonova N. P., doctor agricultural science, Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2256-7932
Institute of animal sciences NAAS.

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2021-126-144-152

Keywords: horse, Orlov Trotter, stallions, speed, measurements, selection, genealogical structure

Abstract

The Orlov Trotter breed is one of the oldest breeds in the world. A significant part of the animals has been bred in stud farms of Ukraine and is one of the most popular horse breeds. A long period of breeding improvement requires exclusively purebred method and careful assessment of the modern breeding stock, in particular, breeding stallions. Additionally, the breeding process takes into account modern requirements of prize sports.
Studies were conducted on all stallions kept by breeding facilities and private owners. Quantitative indicators of the breed have been established, which are: the total number of 465, including breeding mares of reproductive age – 221 and 31 stallions approved for breeding use.
Stallions were evaluated for record speed at a distance of 1600 m and basic torso measurements (height at the withers, oblique torso length, chest circumference, metacarpal circumference).
It was found that 80.8% of Ukrainian stallions are characterized by a high level of alertness (class of alertness 2.10 min and faster), on average, the rate of alertness of stallions is 2.07,8±0.07 min. The coefficient of variability of the trait (CV) is 4.63. According to the main body measurements, stallions of the Orlov Trotter predominate stallions selected by the originator country.
According to absolute records for classical distances in age groups, stallions of the Orlov Trotter are inferior to stallions of the originator country for almost all classical distances in all age groups (except the records of the Korifej 2.03,5 (3-year-old) at a distance of 1600 m and Shpinat 6.59,8 (4-year-old) at a distance of 4800 m). At the same time, over the past decade, 7 absolute records have been updated, including one CIS record.
Sufficient branching of stallions along genealogical lines (8 genealogical lines) was established for purebred breeding and avoiding inbred depression in conditions of a limited gene pool. Stallions of Pion genealogical lines (2.05,1 min) are characterized by indicators of the highest speed at a distance of 1600 m) and the Pilot (2.05,2 min), the most desirable indicators of torso measurements are inherent in stallions of the Voin, Barchuk-Zapad, Pilot and other lines. All stallions come from valuable families.

References

1. Vitt, V. O. (1952). Iz istorii russkogo konnozavodstva. Sozdanie novyh porod loshadej na rubezhe XVIII-XIX st. [From the history of Russian horse breeding. Creation of new breeds of horses at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries]. Mosсow: Sel'hozizdat [in Russian].

2. Vitt, V. O. (1929). Ocherki po istorii rysistogo i konnozavodstva i begovyh ispytanij [Essays on the history of trotting and horse breeding and running tests]. Konnozavodstvo i konevodstvo. 987(31), 5–9 [in Russian].

3. Rozhdestvenskaya, G. A. (2003). Orlovskij rysak [Orlov’s Trotter]. Moscow: Akvarium [in Russian].

4. Volkov, D. A. (1977). Zavodskie porody loshadej Ukrainy i metody ih sovershenstvovaniya [Factory breeds of horses of Ukraine and methods of their improvement]. (Doctor’s thesis). Moscow: MSKHA im. K. A. Timiryazeva[in Russian].

5. Hopka, B. M., Skotsyk V. Ye., Zlamaniuk L. M. (2015). Suchasne i maibutnie orlovskoho rysaka [Present and future of the Orlov’s Trotter]. Naukovyi visnyk NUBiP. Seriia «Tekhnolohiia vyrobnytstva i pererobky produktsii tvarynnytstva». 207. 101-107 [in Ukranian].

6. Hopka, B. M., Tkachuk, V. M. (2018). Zhvavist i skorospilist orlovskykh rysakiv[Speed and precocity of the Orel Trotters]. Suchasnyi stan ta perspektyvy rozvytku ahrarnoho sektoru Ukrainy. Nizhyn. 10, 32–37 [in Ukranian].

7. Gopka, B. M., Skocik, V. E. (2018). Genealogiya orlovskih rysakov klassa 2.05 [Genealogy of Orlov’s trotters of class 2.05]. Kyiv: Vipol [in Ukranian].

8. Hopka, B. M., Burenko, A. V. (2017). Skorospilist orlovskykh rysakiv klasu 2.05 [Precocity of Orlov’s Trotters of class 2.05]. Naukovyi visnyk Natsionalnoho universytetu bioresursiv i pryrodokorystuvannia Ukrainy. Seriia «Tekhnolohiia vyrobnytstva i pererobky produktsii tvarynnytstva». 271, 60–71 [in Ukranian].

9. Kalinkina, G.V. (1989) Optimal'nye metody otbora po kompleksu priznakov pri selekcii orlovskogo rysaka [Optimal selection methods for a set of traits in the selection of the Orlov’s trotter] (Doctor’s thesis). Divovo [in Russian].

10. Goroshko, І. P. (2003). Prohrama selektsii konei orlovskoi rysystoi porody v Ukraini na 2001-2010 roky [Program of breeding horses of the Orlov’s Trotter in Ukraine for 2001-2010]. Kyiv: Agrarna nauka [in Ukranian].

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article

 

Rudenko E. V., Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. Sci., Professor, Corresponding Member of NAAS
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2200-2758
Podobed L. I., doctor agricultural science, profesor,
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4903-4597
Vasilevsky M. V., Candidate of Biological Sci., Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7437-2910
Yeletskaya T. O., Candidate of Biological Sci., Senior Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8980-6972
Sedyuk I. E, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1765-2868
Zolotarev A. P., Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5532-3988
Chyhrynov Ye. I., doctor agricultural science, profesor,
 Tryshin O. K., doctor agricultural science, profesor, Academician of NAAS
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3906-6547
Institute of Animal Science of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2021-126-133-144

Keywords: greenhouse gases, bypass protein, digestibility, cows

Abstract

The article considers the ways of reducing the formation of greenhouse gases and ammonia in the digestive tract of lactating cows. Reduction of emissions is based on increasing the absorption of nutrients by animals due to the use of our specialized additive that rumen escape proteinand starch protected from disintegration in the rumen. The effect of increasing the absorption of nutrients was confirmed in an experiment on fistula animals. It was found that feeding the developed supplement led to some changes in the digestibility of dietary nutrients. In the rumen, the digestibility of crude protein decreased from 6.52 ± 10.047 % to –15.62 ± 3.047 % and crude fat - from 13.49 ± 10.545 % to 1.33 ± 9.611 %, that indicates an increase in microbial synthesis; and the digestibility of crude fiber and nitrogen-free extractives increased from 73.98 ± 6.995 % to 77.82 ± 8.920 % and from 71.29 ± 5.629 % to 80.71 ± 8.878 %, respectively. Tests of the developed additive under production conditions were also carried out. The productivity of experimental cows directly depended on the level of introduction of the additive TEP-mix to the diet. Along with the increase in milk yield of experimental animals, there was a pronounced trend of increasing fat content and protein content in milk, which indicated a significant improvement in protein and energy nutrition in experimental cows. It was found that during the experiment the milk yield of cows probably increased by 7-137 %. The use of the supplement provided lengthening of the lactation peak plateau and lactation curve from 52 to 61 - 65 days, or 22-25 %. There was also a positive effect of the supplement on the prevention of the syndrome of weight loss of cows; there was a reduction in its losses during the first 100 days of lactation by more than 22-27%. Increasing the nutrient uptake of nutrients by cows provided an equivalent reduction in greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions. It was found that when using the additive TEP-mix in feeding lactating cows (feeding 1 kg of additive TEP-mix instead of 1 kg of standard feed) productivity increases by 2.15 kg of milk and reduces emissions of carbon dioxide by 522.54 ± 13.41 g and ammonia per 41 ± 0.13 g per day.

References

1. Balash, A., Batiz, G., Bridl, E., Chaki, T., Gombosh, Sh., & Kjurtfalvi, A. (1994). Soderzhanie, kormlenie i vazhneyshie veterinarnye voprosy pri razvedenii golshtino-frizskoy porody skota [Maintenance, feeding and the most important veterinary issues in breeding Holstein-Friesian cattle]. Budapesht: Agrota [in Russian]. 

2. Kurilov, N. V. (1987). Izuchenie pishchevareniya u zhvachnykh [Digestion study in ruminants]. Borovsk: VNIIFBiP, [in Russian]. 

3. Kharitonov, E. L. (2011). Fiziologiya i biokhimiya pitaniya molochnykh korov [Physiology and biochemistry of nutrition of dairy cows].  Moscow:Optima–servis[in Russian]. 

4. Deckardt, K., Khol-Parisini, A., & Zebeli, O. (2013). Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges.Nutrients, 5(6), 1970–1988. doi: 10.3390 / nu5061970

5. Matthe A., Lebzien P., & Flachowsky G. (2000). On the relevance of bypass-starch for the glucose supply of high-yielding dairy cows. Übersichten zur Tierernährung, 28(1), 1–64.

6. Nocek, J. E., & Tamminga, S. (1991). Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10), 3598–3629. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78552-4.

7. Zebeli, Q., Mansmann, D., Steingass, H., & Ametaj, B. N. (2010). Balancing diets for physically effective fibre and ruminally degradable starch: A key to lower the risk of sub-acute rumen acidosis and improve productivity of dairy cattle. Livestock Science, 127, 1–10. doi:10.1016 / J.LIVSCI.2009.09.003

8. Yeletska, T. O., Vasylevskyi, M. V., Berestova, L. Ye., Minenko, H. V., Abdulaieva M. S. (2016). Vplyv baipas-produktu na protsesy travlennia u velykoi rohatoi khudoby [Influence of bypass product on digestion processes in cattle]. Biolohiia tvaryn. Lviv, Institute of Animal Biology NAAS 18(3), 23–29. doi: org/10.15407/animbiol18.03.023

9. Rudenko, E.V., Shapovalov, S.O., Rosso, L.M., Bredikhina, T.O., Rusko, N.P., Tsyupko, V.V., Gritsina, O.G. Naukovo-metodychni osnovy monitorynhu yakosti syroho moloka [Scientific and methodological bases of monitoring the quality of raw milk]. (2010). Kharkiv: Instytut tvarynnytstva NAAN [in Ukranian].

10. Bogatova, O. V., & Dogareva, N. G. (2004). Khimiya i fizika moloka [Chemistry and Physics of Milk]. Orenburg: GOU OGU [in Russian].

11. Kalinin, F. L., Lobov, V. P., & Zhidkov, V. A. (1997). Spravochnik po biohimii [Biochemistry Handbook].  Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Russian].

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article

 

Piskun V. I., doctor agricultural science, senior scientist,
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0373-9268
Antonenko S. F., doctor agricultural science, senior scientist,
 Admin O. E., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior scientist,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5070-8926
Osipenko T. L., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2605-3587
Admina N. G., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior scientist,
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5224-2640
Zolotarev A. P., Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5532-3988
 Sikun M. V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Institute of Animal Science of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2021-126-120-133

Keywords: heifers, paratypic parameters, live weight, average daily gain, safety, multicriteria analysis, regression model.

Abstract

The article examines the effectiveness of heifers under the influence of paratypic parameters. Parameters of efficiency of heifers at the “Gontarivka” breeding facility were 1.2153 times worse than the indicators at “Profintern” breeding facility in 2018; for 2019 - 1.3449 times and for 2020 - 1.2372 times.
Multicriteria analysis takes into account such parameters as the age of the first insemination and the number of heads in the insemination groups. It was found a special advantage of soybean meal usage according to the considered criteria when it was 0.0119 and for sunflower meal – 2.3697 times less. The probable influence of the year on the growing intensity of young stock (p<0.001) was established. Thus, the strength of the influence of this parameter in the breeding facility “Gontarivka” was 0.8%, in “Kutuzivka” breeding facility it was 4.1% and in “Stepne” breeding facility it was 1.8%. The growth rate of heifers during the study period in all farms changed slightly. The increase in the average daily weight gain between 2018 and 2021 in the “Gontarivka” breeding facility was 124 g, in the “Kutuzivka” - 164 g and in the “Stepne” - 27 g (p <0.001). The same patterns in changes in average daily increments over the years in all farms indicate their dependence on climatic conditions of the season. The dynamics of changes in the growth of heifers depending on their age was also determined, the strength of which was 5.26% in “Gontarivka”, 7.43% in “Kutuzivka” and 7.43% in “Stepne” (p <0.001).
The average daily weight gain also depended on the average monthly air temperature. The strength of the impact of this factor was 17.7% in “Gontarivka”, 13.6% in “Kutuzivka” and 9.6% in “Stepne” (p <0.001). Analysis of the dynamics of changes in average daily weight gain for the whole period showed that in the summer with increasing air temperature decreased. Conversely, in winter, when keeping heifers indoors, the average daily gain increased. The correlation coefficient between the growth of heifers and the average monthly temperature in "Gontarivka" was negative (r = -0.159, p <0.001), and with the age of animals - positive (r = +0.039, p <0.01). For “Kutuzivka”, the values of the coefficients in the direction of communication did not differ and amounted to -0.159 (p <0.001) and +0.190 (p <0.001), respectively. According to the data of animal development of the State Enterprise "Stepne" positive correlations of growth with the age of heifers (r = +0.187, p <0.001) and with the average monthly air temperature (r = +0.151, p <0.01). Based on the results of calculations, models for forecasting average daily increments for experimental farms have been developed.

References

1. Iliashenko, H. D. & Polupan, Yu. P. (2009). Vplyv henetychnykh ta paratypnykh chynnykiv na molochnu produktyvnist koriv ukrainskoi chervonoi ta chorno-riaboi molochnykh porid. [Influence of genetic and paratypic factors on milk productivity of cows of Ukrainian red and white, black and white dairy breeds]. Visnyk stepu [Bulletin of the Steppe]. Kirovohrad: Kirovohradskyi IAPV UAAN, 6, 129–136 [in Ukrainian].

2. Savchuk, D. I., Polupan, Yu. P., Sakhatskyi, P. S. & Haievyi, V. V. (2001). Reaktsiia velykoi rohatoi khudoby na deiaki faktory seredovyshcha. [Reaction of cattle to some environmental factors]. Biolohiia tvaryn [The Animal Biology]. Lviv, 3, 1, 70–72 [in Ukrainian].

3. Hladii, M. V., Polupan, Yu. P., Bazyshyna, I. V., Bezrutchenko, I. M. & Polupan, N. L. (2014). Vplyv henetychnykh i paratypovykh chynnykiv na hospodarsky korysni oznaky koriv. [Influence of genetic and paratypic factors on economically useful traits of cows]. Rozvedennia i henetyka tvaryn [Animal breeding and genetics]. Kyiv, 48, 48‑61 [in Ukrainian].

4. Belenkaya, A. E. (2018). Influence of paratypic factors on the productivity of holstein cow. International scientific and practical conference "AgroSMART – Smart solutions for agriculture" (AgroSMART 2018). Series: Advances in engineering research, 151, 77 80. doi: https://doi.org/10.2991/agrosmart-18.2018.15

5. Siratskyi, Y. & Fedorovych, Ye. (2000). Pravyla vyroshchuvannia vysokoproduktyvnoho remontnoho molodniaku. [Rules for growing highly productive young stock]. Propozytsiia, 7, 70–71 [in Ukrainian].

6. Melnyk, Yu. F. (2000). Zalezhnist produktyvnosti khudoby ukrainskoi chervono-riaboi molochnoi porody vid spadkovykh i paratypovykh faktoriv [Dependence of productivity of cattle of the Ukrainian red-spotted dairy breed on hereditary and paratypic factors. Аbstract of the candidate]. (Candidate’s thesis). Chubynske [in Ukrainian].

7. Shkurko, T. P. (2009). Produktyvne vykorystannia koriv molochnykh porid [Productive use of dairy cows. monograph]. Dnipropetrovsk: IMA Press [in Ukrainian].

8. Semchuk, I. Ya., Pivtorak, Ya. I. & Dutka V. R. (2014). Orhanizatsiia normovanoi hodivli ta spriamovanoho vyroshchuvannia remontnykh telyts. [Organization of standardized feeding and directed breeding of repair heifers]. Tekhnolohiia vyrobnytstva i pererobky produktsii tvarynnytstva [Animal Husbandry Products Production and Processing], 2, 43‑45 [in Ukrainian].

9. Kostenko, V. I. (2020). Intensyvni metody vyroshchuvannia remontnoho molodniaku velykoi rohatoi khudoby [Intensive methods of raising repair young cattle]. Kyiv: Lira-K [in Ukrainian].

10. Pidpala, T. V., Yasevin, S. Ye., Drovniak, O. V. (2011). Intensyvne vyroshchuvannia remontnoho molodniaku molochnoi khudoby. [Intensive rearing of repair young cattle]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Vinnytskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu [Collection of scientific works of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University.], 11(51), 117‑120 [in Ukrainian].

11. Kruhliak, O. V. (2018). Formuvannia vysokoproduktyvnykh molochnykh stad yak chynnyk pidvyshchennia efektyvnosti vyrobnytstva moloka. [Formation of highly productive dairy herds as a factor in improving the efficiency of milk production]. Ekonomika APK. 3, 24– 31 [in Ukrainian].

12. Havrylenko, M. (2001). Vymohy do rostu i rozvytku pleminnykh telyts. [Requirements for the growth and development of breeding heifers]. Propozytsiia, 8, 80‑81 [in Ukrainian].

13. Mirskij, Moshe (2004). Molochnaja promyshlennost' Izrailja [Israeli dairy industry] [in Russian].

14. Piskun,V. I., Yatsenko, Yu. V. & Yatsenko, Yu. Yu. (2020). The concept of optimization of technological solutions of agricultural production. Modernengineeringandinnovativetechnologies. Germany, 12(1), 5‑11. doi: 10.30890/2567-5273.2020-12-01-015.

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article

 

Pomitun I.A., doctor agricultural science, profesor,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7743-3600
Kosova N.O., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior scientist,
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7353-1994
Pankiv L. P., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior scientist,
Institute of Animal Science of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2021-126-112-120

Keywords: adaptive reaction, sheep, ecogenesis, growth intensity, fertility, breed, air temperature.

Abstract

The article highlights the issues of the adaptive response of the body of ewes to the influence of environmental conditions. Animals are related to three local breeds of meat productivity. Parameters of reproduction and growth rate of animals’ offspring were evaluated.
The research was conducted on sheep of meat breeds of different ecogenesis: Suffolk, Latvian Dark-Head, Dnieper Meaty, and crossbreds. The crossbred animals had clear genotypic and phenotypic differences, as well as conditions of housing in the facility - FOP "Gragdanova O.
Yu" of Kharkiv region. Daily temperature fluctuations were taken into account during the two cycles of insemination of ewes and their reproductive capacity and growth rate of lambs obtained from 60-70 days.
It was found that ewes classified in the first group were inseminated at an average daytime temperature of 28.8 °C, which is almost 7 °C (%) higher, than animals in the second group. The difference between the compared groups was highly probable (p<0.001). Per 100 lambs, the yield of lambs in the first and second groups was 129.2% and 136.5%, respectively.
Significant fluctuations in the fertility of ewes and the intensity of growth of lambs from birth to 60-70 days of the age of different breeds and linear-breed combinations were revealed. High combining ability of breeders of the new line 024/063 of the Dnieper Meaty breed in terms of the fertility of ewes and intensity of growth of lambs at purebred breeding and crossing with the Latvian Dark-Head breed was revealed.

References

1. Collier, R. J., Renquist, B. J., & Xiao, Y. A. (2017). 100-year review: stress physiology includюing heat stress. J. Dairy Sci., 100, 10367–10380. doi: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13676.

2. Romo-Barron, C. B., Diaz, D., Portillo-Loera, J. J., Romo-Rubio, J. A., Jimenez-Trejo, F., & Montero-Pardo, A. (2019). Impact of heat stress on the reproductive performance and physiology of ewes: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Int. J. Biometeorol, 63(7). 949–962.doi: 10.1007/s00484-019-01707-z.

3. Silanikove, N. (2000). Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livestock Prod Sci., 67(1–2), 1–18. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(00)00162-7.

4. Bernabucci, U., Lacetera, N., Baumgard, L. H., Rhoads, R. P., Ronchi, B., & Nardone, A. (2010). Metabolic and hormonal acclimation to heat stress in domesticated ruminants. Animal, 4(7), 1167–1183.doi: 10.1017/S175173111000090X

5. Marai, I. F. M., El-Darawany, A. A., Fadiel, A., Abdel-Hafez, M. A. M. (2007). Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep: a review. Small Ruminant Res., 71(1–3), 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.10.003.

6. Al-Dawood, A. (2017). Towards heat stress management in small ruminants: a review. Ann. Animal Sci., 17(1), 59–88. doi: 10.1515/aoas-2016-0068.

7. Yeates, N. (1953). The effect of high air temperature on reproduction in the ewe. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 43(2), 199–203. doi: 10.1017/S002185960004497X

8. van Wettere, W. H. E. J., Kind, K. L., Gatford, K. L., Swinbourne, A. M., Leu S. T.,   Hayman, P. T. & Walker, S. K.  (2021).  Review of the impact of heat stress on reproductive performance of sheep. J. Animal Sci. Biotechnol. 12, 26. Retrieved from https://jasbsci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40104-020-00537-z

9. Vdovychenko, Yu. V., Omelchenko, L. O., Fursa, N. M., Makarchuk, R. M., & Yaremchyk, A. I. (2013). Mekhanizmy adaptatsii tvaryn pivdennoi miasnoi porody velykoi rohatoi khudoby do ekstremalnykh umov Stepovoi zony Ukrainy [Mechanisms of adaptation of animals of the southern meat breed of cattle to extreme conditions of the Steppe zone of Ukraine]. Науковий вісник «Асканія-Нова» [Scientific Herald "Askania Nova"]. Nova Kakhovka: Pyel, 6, 109–117 [in Ukrainian].

10. Zhmurovskyi, I. O., & Kushnerenko, V. H. (2019). Polipshennia umov utrymannia velykoi rohatoi khudoby v umovakh zmin klimatu [Improving the housing conditions of cattle in the context of climate change]. Suchasnyi stan ta perspektyvy rozvytku tvarynnytstva Ukrainy v umovakh yevrointehratsii: materialy vseukrainskoi internet konferentsii [Current Status and Prospects of Livestock Development in Ukraine in the context of European integration, Proceedings of the All-Ukrainian Internet Conference.Kherson, 190–206 [in Ukrainian].

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article

 

Pomitun I. A., doctor agricultural science, profesor,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7743-3600
Kosova N. O., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior scientist,
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7353-1994
Korkh I. V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, senior scientist,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8077-895X
Boyko N. V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6742-8456
Pomitun L. I., Researcher
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5264-2898
Institute of Animal Science of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine
Turinsky V. M., doctor agricultural science, profesor,
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0312-694X
Bogdanova N. V., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Assistents of profesor
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4634-9609
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine.

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2021-126-99-111

Keywords: Askanian breed, Taurian breed, live weight, crossbreeding, shearing, washed wool yield, wool sorting, ecological and technological conditions, Charolais breed.

Abstract

The study was conducted during 2013-2021 in the breeding breeder LLC "Agrofirma" Mayak "Kotelevsky district of Poltava region.
Comparing the indicators of animals according to estimates in 2013 with the current herd, it was found that the group of live weight differs by only 1.4%. Rams of the modern herd exceed by 13.1% on this basis, and adult broods are inferior by 20.7%. The latter is a consequence of the intensive use of the main rams due to their use during the 6-month breeding cycle currently used on the farm. The wool productivity of the modern herd is 20.9% higher than that of the original herd. The shearing of unwashed wool in broodstock decreased by 15.1%, and in the other group - on the contrary, increased by almost 40%. The latter is a consequence of higher selection pressure in the formation of the group of broodstock at the present stage of work with the herd, compared to the previous period. No significant differences in the length of wool in sheep of different groups for the compared period were found.
Depending on the age at grading, the indicators of the live weight of bright TTAs differed significantly. Animals born in March predominated both juniors (12-13 months old, born in April-May) by 2.2 and 10.1%, and older (15 months old) by 2.6%. At the same time, the brightness of the modern herd as a whole is 16.6% higher than the live weight of peers who were raised before the purchase in the maternal herd - breeding farm LLC"Askaniyske".
In terms of unwashed wool shearing, the predominance was for the oldest animals (15 months old, born in February) by 13.5-24.2%. It was found that the indicators of live weight and shearing of unwashed wool local bright ½ TTAs x ½ W predominated purebred peers by 7.8 kg (14.5%). The difference in live weight compared to purebred animals of the Taurian type of Askanian breed, which lambed at 15 months of age was 7.2 kg, or 13.1% (p≤0.01), and between non-lambing peers - 9, 7 kg (16.8%). There was no difference in the shearing of unwashed wool and the length of the staple.

References

  1.  Antonets, O. H. & Kravchenko, A. F. (2015). Produktyvnist pereiarok tavriiskoho typu riznykh linii [Productivity of taurians of Taurian type of various lines]. Vivcharstvo i kozivnytstvo [Sheep and goat breeding]. Nova Kakhovka: Piel, 147–153 [in Ukrainian].
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article

 

Michalchenko Stepan,  doctor agricultural science, profesor
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3679-073X
Chechui Helena, candidate of  biological science, Assistents of profesor
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8514-397X
State biotechnology University

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2021-126-89-98

Keywords: bulls, protein, essential amino acids, nonessential amino acids, beef, ontogenesis

Abstract

Results of protein evaluation, and essential and nonessential amino acids in protein as indicators of the nutritional value of beef are presented. On purebred of the milk and combination direction of productivity, in particular, Simmental, Black-Marked, Red Steppe, Lebedinsky, Anglerovsky, and Ukrainian Grey bulls breeds when used in process of animal feeding intensive nutrition technology. In the process of further growth and development of cattle, the dynamics of protein content is not observed. It was revealed that the protein content in the beef of the bulls of the studied breeds did not change during the experiment on the sum of the breeds, however, there is interbreed variability of this indicator: at 3 months the highest protein content is observed in the Lebedinsky and Ukrainian Grey breeds, the lowest in the Angler breed, at 9 months the lowest content of this indicator in the Red Steppe and Angler breeds, and the smallest in the Ukrainian Grey. A feature of the percentage of amino acids in protein is a decrease in this at 12 months in all breeds studied, which can be explained by switching the metabolism of bulls from nitrogen to lipid. The feeding level during the nesting period showed the potential for increasing meat productivity due to the animals receiving the same nutritional value of the rations, taking into account the detailed nutritional norms. Feed nutritional value during the experiment was 690 − 757 kg of crude protein, one feed unit contained 102 − 105 g of digestible protein and 9.84 −9.91 kJ of metabolic energy per kg of dry weights.
The results of this work are relevant for assessing the quality of beef according to the criterion of the biological value of protein in the carcasses of bulls of the combined and milk breeds of productivity, taking into account the requirements of the modern market.

References

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2. Broiyk, М. М. (2018). Sychactiy stan ta perspectives rozvitky galuzi tvarinnitstva v Ukraini [Modern state and perspectives of livestock development inUkraine]. Economichniy analiz[Economicanalysis]28(4), 331−337 [in Ukranian].

3. Muniv, R. М. (2018). Perspectivy virobnitstva miasa v krainach ES [Perspectives of meat production in EU countries]. Naukoviy visnik Lvivskogo natsionalnogo universiteta. Seriia Ekonomichni nauky  [Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series Economical sciences], 20(81), 52−61. dоі: 10.15421/nvlvet8611 [in Ukrainian].

4. Paska, М. Z. (2015). Porivnialna ozinka yakosti yalovichinu NOR, PSEта DFD [Comparative assessment of beef quality]. Vostochno-evropeyskiy zhyrnal peredovich technologiy [Eastern European Journal of Advanced Technology], 3(10), 15, 59−64. dоі: 10.15587/ 1729-4061.2015.44496.

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7. Fedorovich, V. V., & Fedorovich, E. І. (2017). Productivni yakosti tvarin riznich pored velikoy rogatoy chudobi [Productive qualities of animals of different breeds of cattle]. Rozvedennia i genetika tvarun [Breeding and genetics of animals]. Kyiv, 51, 160–167 [in Ukrainian].

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article

 

Melnik Vladimir, Ph. D,
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3571-7872
Ryabinina Elena, Ph. D, Senior Researcher,
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3803-0195
State Poultry Research Station NAAS
Komar T. V., a post-graduate student
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9569-8373
Institute of animal sciences of NAAS

DOI https://doi.org/10.32900/2312-8402-2021-126-79-89

Keywords: poultry keeping, turkeys, litter, regeneration, multiple usage.

Abstract

In the context of a constantly growing shortage of bedding materials, the practice of their repeated use after regeneration is becoming more widespread. However, the known methods of litter regeneration, such as biothermal composting in piles without covering or with covering the piles, have certain disadvantages and require improvement in the direction of intensifying biothermal processes and increasing the level of disinfection. Also, these methods relate mainly to the bedding of broiler chickens. The main kinetic regularities of the processes of regeneration of the used litter of other bird species have been insufficiently studied. Considering the above, the goal of our research was to develop an improved method for regenerating used turkey litter and to study its effect in comparison with known methods on the kinetics of the biothermal treatment process, chemical composition and microbial contamination of the litter. An improved method of regeneration was developed, which involved adding a special microbiological preparation to the bedding and irradiating the surface of the pile during composting with ultraviolet radiation (UVR). For comparison, the known methods of litter regeneration were used: 1K – by composting in a pile; 2K – the same and, in addition, covered the litter during composting with foil. As shown by the research results, the addition of a microbiological preparation and covering the shoulder with a film contributed to an increase in the temperature of the litter during the biothermal treatment by 1.2 – 9.4 °C (p <0.05). The addition of a microbiological preparation and irradiation of the surface of the pile with UV radiation made it possible to reduce the emission of ammonia from the litter during its regeneration by 4 – 25 mg/m2 per hour. compared with the first control option (P <0.01), while when the collar was covered with a film, it increased. The highest nitrogen content after biothermal treatment was noted in the litter, the regeneration of which was carried out in accordance with the improved method, and the lowest in the variant where the pile was covered with a film. After biothermal treatment, microbial contamination of the litter with enterobacteria inside the piles decreased in all variants: in the first control by 90 %, when the pile was covered with a film by 93 %, with the addition of a microbiological preparation and irradiation of the pile with ultraviolet radiation (improved method) by 95 %. Covering with a film, and especially irradiation of the pile with ultraviolet radiation, made it possible to significantly reduce microbial contamination of the litter and on the surface of the piles. Microbial contamination of the litter by fungal microorganisms after regeneration decreased 2.5 times – on the surface of the piles, and 5 times – inside.

References

1. Lavergne, T. K., Stephens, M. F., Schellinger, D., & Carney, W. A. (2006). In-house pasteurization of broiler litter. LSU. Agric. Center, Baton Rouge.

2. Modini, R. L., Agranovski, V., Meyer, N. K., & Gallagher, E. (2010). Dust emissions from a tunnel-ventilated broiler poultry shed with fresh and partially reused litter. Animal Production Science, 50, 552–556. URL:https://doi.org/10.1071/AN09207

3. Lopes, M., Roll, V.S., Leite, F.L., Dai Pra, M.A., Xayier, E.G., Heres, T., & Valente, B. S. (2013). Quicklime treatment and stirring of different poultry litter substrates for reducing pathogenic bacteria counts. Poultry Science, 92, 638–644. doi: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02700

4. Sonoda, L. T., Moura, D. J.,. Bueno, L. G. F., Cordeiro, D. C., & Mendes, A. S. (2012). Broiler litter reutilization applying different composting concepts. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic, 14(3), 227–232. URL: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-635X2012000300011

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